Born in York, Livingston County, New York, on December 23, 1820. His parents dedicated him to the Gospel ministry early. With this in mind, he was sent to Scotland for studies to insure that he had a thorough and classical education for this purpose. Upon his return to America, he graduated from Union College, in 1846. Afterward, he studied theology, under Samuel Bowden, at the Reformed Presbyterian seminary, at that time located in Cincinnati. He was licensed by the Rochester Presbytery, June 10, 1851. On October 12, 1854, he was ordained and installed as pastor of the Second Miami congregation, Northwood, Logan County, Ohio. In this connection, he spent the remainder of his life. In 1870, he became the Latin professor in Geneva College; and, in 1872, he was the moderator of the Synod. In the fall of 1876, he became ill and died at his home, in Northwood, November 15, 1876. He has been described as a profound theologian and a proficient classical scholar. controversy. His writings were few but evidenced the influence of his Scottish education by defending the original Testimony of the Reformed Presbyterian church.