HAVING thus given a rapid sketch of what we conceive to be the meaning of these prophecies, we proceed to inquire how much of them has been fulfilled?
From the interpretations given, the answer to this question must be that we are rapidly approaching the end. My study of the question forces me to the conclusion that we are under the seventh trumpet, and in the after part of the fifth vial, which is being emptied upon the seat of the beast; and as the vials overlap at junctional points, also under the beginning of the sixth, which is being poured out upon the river Euphrates, to dry up the river; said river being the Turkish power, for reasons already given. When these are finished, there will remain but one, the seventh, to be poured out in the air, universal.
According to this scheme, the thing now in order is the final drying up of the Turkish power, including the Russian Government, the regular offspring and descendant of the third great beast of Daniel, and upon which the Greek church, the offshoot of the eastern leg, or empire, is so snugly seated as its rider; these being the last armed foes resisting with the sword the spread of the gospel, and obstructing the way of the kings of the East. After which will be the universal outpouring of God’s wrath upon all those who wear the mark of the beast; then the last great earthquake or upheaval, which is to usher in the Millennium.
Before the Millennium three things are necessary:
1st, The preaching of the gospel to every creature.
2nd, Completed accumulation of prayer.
3rd, The universal outpouring of the Spirit.
This is seed sowing time; the running to and fro, and increasing knowledge. Never such a close union of different denominations; never such study of the scriptures, and dissemination of light; never before was there such activity in all Christian work, especially in the cause of Foreign Missions; never such enlarged contributions to all the schemes of benevolence. So the accumulation of prayer has been going on for ages. Patriarchs, prophets and apostles, and the saints in all ages, have been earnestly uniting in the petition, “Thy kingdom come.” The accumulation of prayer on high has already become a mighty ocean encompassing the throne of God, his plan being not to hear and answer each petition separately, but all at once, so that we who remain shall not have any advantage over those gone before, and all may have part alike in the “harvest home.” Likewise, abundant assurances have been given for the universal outpouring of the Holy Spirit in the latter days. When, then, this seed sowing shall be fully accomplished, and this gospel preached to every creature, and this accumulation of prayer be fully completed, it will then only remain for God, in accordance with the promise, to pour out his Spirit in Pentecostal effusion and power, and nations will easily be converted in a day.
WHEN SHALL THESE THINGS BE?
But is there anything to guide us in reaching a conclusion as to when these things will be? We thing there is, and certainly enough at least to lead to an approximate estimate.
In order to see this, we have only to place side by side the statements of Daniel with those of John.
According to Daniel, the first little horn (Papal) was to continue “A time, times, and the dividing of time,” That is, three and a half years, or 1,260 days. (2), The second little horn (Mohammedan) to continue, as we interpret, 1,290 days. (3), From the time the daily sacrifice is taken away, and abomination making desolate set up, to the end, 1,290 days. (4), Blessed period to him that cometh to the 1335.
According to John, the holy city was to be given to the Gentiles, to be trodden down forty-two months, or 1,260 days. (2), Two witnesses in sackcloth to testify 1,260 days. (3), The woman to remain in the wilderness, to be nourished, a time and times and a half, 1,260 days.
It is generally agreed that the different forms of expression, “time, times and a half,” “forty-two months,” and “1,260 days,” are all the same, and refer to the same thing, and terminate with the 2,300 days, the only trouble being to know where these different dates begin, and to make them harmonize with the facts of history, as well as the interpretation of the Master concerning the setting up of the abomination of desolation at Jerusalem.
Concerning the 2,300 days, the writer has no difficulty, as he understands it to refer to the time of the cleansing of the sanctuary, and not the length of its profanation; not that the sanctuary was to be defiled 2,300 days, but the vision was to extend thus far. How long shall be the vision concerning the daily sacrifice and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot? “And he said unto me unto two thousand and three hundred days, then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.” As the vision includes all that was said concerning the ram and he-goat, as well as the little horn, and the transgression of desolation, this answer simply asserts that it would take that many days to cover the whole, without telling when that period was to begin.
It becomes, therefore, a matter of importance to determine the beginning of the 2,300 days. It might be either the time of the vision, or the time of the notable little horn, or the time of the cessation of the daily sacrifice and the setting up of the abomination.
It cannot be the time of the vision, for that was about 583 years B.C. and the 2,300 whether days or years, have long since passed, and the sanctuary not yet cleansed.
Neither can it be the time of the removal of the daily sacrifice and the setting up of the abomination as generally understood; for the angel expressly tells Daniel, that from the time the daily sacrifice would be taken away, and the abomination set up, to the cleansing of the temple, would be 1,290 days. The daily sacrifice was taken away by the Romans in A.D. 70. Add 1,290 and we will have 1,360, and whether days or years, the time is past, and the sanctuary still remains polluted.
We are therefore forced to the conclusion, that the 2,300 days must begin with the Medopersian ram, and with his “standing” on the banks of the river, and not his first beginning. For the goat found him thus standing. Alexander’s first victory was 434 B.C. Add 2,300, and it brings us to 1866, which harmonizes with the other dates, viz., “The time, times and half time,” the forty-two months and 1,260 days, and make them all terminate about the same time.
ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION.
Three questions spring up here. 1st, When was the daily sacrifice taken away? 2nd, The abomination of desolation, what was it, and when set up? 3rd, What have Mohammedans to do with it?
To the first question I reply, that, in the first and typical sense, the sacrifice was clearly taken away when the Romans under Titus took the city. The interpretation of the Master settles that.
To the second I answer, that the Abomination so frequently alluded to was not simply the destruction of Jerusalem, but something to be set up in after years.
The part the Mohammedans will take in setting it up will appear further on.
To a clear understanding of the matter, we must ever bear in mind that there is here, as in other prophecies, a double meaning, one outward, and one inward, one the shadow, and the other the substance. The student cannot fail to see this in the language of the Savior, already alluded to in that mysterious blending of these two, where he speaks of the destruction of the city and coming judgment in almost one and the same breath. Indeed it is utterly impossible to understand his meaning upon any other supposition.
Daniel just as clearly alludes to two different things, one near, the other remote, when he speaks of the “ships of Chittim” (Ch. lx. 30), generally understood of the Romans, who were so soon to come, and yet at the same time declares that the vision was “For many days,” and “To the end,” and not to be accomplished till the completion of “the scattering of the holy people.” He may have been speaking directly in Chapter viii. of the profanation by Antiochus, as many think; but as so much said is wholly inapplicable to him, the conclusion is unavoidable, that he was speaking also of another and more important spiritual abomination, to arise further on. So the Master, while telling of the abomination by the Romans, so near at hand, clearly had in his eye another and more detestable abomination in the more distant future. Hence his caveat, “Let him that readeth understand,” clearly intimating the existence of a deeper meaning and a different abomination.
The apostle John just as clearly refers to a future abomination. He says nothing in his vision about the destruction of Jerusalem, for that was already past. He was banished, as we believe, under Domitian, and not Nero; the city was therefore already destroyed, and the sacrifice removed. From his standpoint the coming ills were all in the future—something yet to be set up—and something dealing entirely with the church of God in the latter days; in other words, the Antichrist, or Man of Sin, of which Paul also speaks, and from the rise of which, and not form the destruction of the city, we are to date the beginning of the forty-two months, the “time, times and a half,” three and a half years, the 1,260 years; when the real and true sanctuary was to be cleansed; and when, after the fullness of the Gentiles had been brought in, the Jews would return to their land, not, however, to rebuild the temple, and reinstate the Jewish worship, as Dr. Rutledge and followers affirm.
According, then, to the concurrent testimony of Daniel, John, and the Savior, with all of whom Paul so fully agrees, some great abomination was to be set up in the future, apart from, and after the destruction of the city, and the dispersion of the people, which was to be the beginning of the 1260 period, and to which the former simply pointed as prophecy and type.
What then was that abomination? And when set up? Daniel tells us very plainly where to look for it, as well as the time of its appearing. He tells us that it was to be found in the two feet of Nebuchadnezzar’s image, after the division of the Roman empire into ten subordinate kingdoms, and would appear in the form of two horns or powers- the one imbedded in, and growing out of the one foot, and the other imbedded in, and coming out of the other foot; both, therefore, appearing about the same time; the one the regular descendant of the four great empires; the other the offspring of the third great beast, and though seemingly outside in its origin, yet so engrafted in, and identified with, as to become one with the eastern leg, and to act in unison with the western, in its tyranny over the earth.
A bird’s eye view of the prophetic utterances of Daniel will aid in this investigation.
In chapter vii. He tells of a strange and mysterious king coming out of the fourth or Roman monarchy, and also described in Chapters ix. and xi. as the king who would destroy the city and take away the sacrifice.
In Chapter viii. he tells of another king of fierce countenance, and understanding dark sentences, to come out of the third beast, or Grecian monarchy of whom it is also said that he would take away the sacrifice, and set up an abomination.
In Chapter xi. he gives the general history of his people, from the time of the Persian empire till the end of time; and more especially how that, after alternate struggles between the kings of Syria and Egypt, the upper and lower portions of Alexander’s kingdom, one on the north and the other on the south of Jerusalem, and therefore spoken of as the king of the north and the king of the south, the “ships of Chittim” would come, and “Arms should stand,” generally understood of the Romans, described as a willful king, who would neither regard the God of his fathers nor the desire of women; who would pollute the sanctuary, and take away the sacrifice; who would magnify himself, speaking against the God of gods, worshipping a strange God, even the god Mauzzim, or defenders,—(patrons of saints and images)—and for a while rule with power and great riches.
I understand the concluding verses (40-45) to refer to the Romans and at a later period, at the end of time, and therefore the nomenclature, “the king of the north,” and “king of the south,” changes, so that the king of the north would be the Saracens, and the king of the south the Turks, “at the time of the end,” therefore,—that is, the time that shall lead to the end,—the king of the north, or Saracens, would push at the Romans, as they did, and the king of the south, or Turks, would come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots and horsemen and with many ships, as they did. He, that is, the Turks, would enter the countries and overflow and pass over. He would also enter the glorious land, and subdue countries.
Edom and Moab would escape, but Egypt would not escape. Yet tidings out of the north (Russian invasion), and from the east (yet in the future, perhaps Persia), shall trouble him. He shall plant the tabernacles of his palace (his camps) between the seas, in the glorious mountain. Yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.
In Chapter xiii. he tells of the time of the continuance of the real pollution, and the length of time necessary for the destruction of the two aforesaid kings mentioned in Chapters vii. and viii. viz., 1260, and 1290 years for perfecting the cleansing of the real spiritual temple; and 1335 as the blessed period.
Here, then, we have (1), The different nations of people from whom the oppression is to come—the Romans and Turks. (2), The different forms of oppression, two wicked kings, represented by two horns. (3), The different peoples oppressed; not only the Jews, but also the Gentile world. (4), The time of continuance of the oppression, 1260 and 1290 years. (5), The period of complete and blessed deliverance, viz., 1335.
In hunting for these two horns, or wicked kings, we need not be long in the search. Interpreters are generally agreed that the first little horn of Daniel, Chapter VII., refers to the Papacy. We are just as fully persuaded that the other little horn in Chapter viii. finds its counterpart in Mohammedanism. We may not be able to go as far as Sir Isaac Newton, who held that Mohammedanism was the second beast of John, yet we must believe that he his the second horn of Daniel. To make the two horns refer to the Papacy, as some have done, is to confound things entirely different, fail to explain all parts, and besides a useless repetition, unusual in scripture. The aptness too of the description fixes the interpretation. “A king of fierce countenance”; Mohammed proffered only submission or the sword. “His power was mighty, but not of himself”; Mohammed inherited no hereditary dominion, but was a self-made man. “Understanding dark sentences.” How applicable to the Koran!—a book remarkable for “its sententious obscurity,” as Scott has well said, and as every one knows who has ever read the same. He was also to “stand against the Prince of princes.” Mohammedanism seeks the destruction of the supremacy of Christ. “Cast down some of the host of heaven,” and “in his hand craft would prosper,” all of which find their counterpart in that delusion.
Here, then, in these two contemporaneous and singularly strange and mysterious religions, one imbedded in, and by natural descent coming out of the one foot, and the other imbedded in by amalgamation, and identified with the other foot of Nebuchadnezzar’s image, we have the two horns by which the world was to be, and has so long been gored. The one, Popery, with its sister, the Greek Church, with the Czar, (contraction of Cæsar) as its head; and the other, Mohammedanism. Rome stands as the representative of the one, Constantinople of the other.
The reason why these two are selected and emphasized out of all the other false religions is, as we imagine, first, because of their historical connections, and secondly, on account of their blasphemous assumptions and tendencies, the one making the Pope the Vicar of Christ, with the Virgin Mary as the intercessor, and the other in enthroning Mohammed in the place of the Lord Jesus Christ, “Great is Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet,” being the Muezzin’s daily cry. In all of which the throne and prerogatives of Christ are ignored, if not directly assailed, which cannot be said of Buddhism, Shintooism, Taoism, or any other false religion; for, though these may be even more degraded and degrading, they are nevertheless free from such blasphemies.
Then there is something quite suggestive as to the association, if not in the actual kinship, of the two. Alike and yet unlike, enemies and yet friends, like Herod and Pontius Pilate, making friends in order to their better prosecution of their unhallowed warfare upon the church of God. Of Amsterdam it has been said that it was a “Vulgar Venice.” So of Constantinople it might also be said that it was a “Vulgar Rome.” It shows, though in a subordinate degree, all the leading features of the imperial city. It imitates in these particulars: (1), Once the Capital of the Empire; it still claims supremacy over the one-half, as Rome over the other. (2), Like its rival, it is built upon seven hills, though not as distinctly defined as those of the former. (3), It has its great church edifice, the Mosque of St. Sophia, but not equal in grandeur to the magnificent structure of St. Peters at Rome. (4), Both are intolerant and exclusive, though the sway of the former is not so extensive as that of the latter. (5), The one directly in the path of the Jew, and the other in the way of the Gentile. It is for this outward, if not inward affiliation, that has led Barnes and others to adopt the view making Mohammedanism the false prophet, to be cast at last with the beast into the burning flame.
What we have already said is a sufficient answer to the third question, “What has Mohammedanism to do with the pollution of the sanctuary?” With the first destruction and first pollution it has nothing to do. That was the work of the Roman, as we have already seen.
But it has had much to do with its after pollution and continued disturbance, and interference of its service (δι’ αυτον θυσια εταραχθη). By him was the sacrifice disturbed, as the Septuagint has it; much to do with the setting up, and keeping set up, the second, real, true abomination; much to do with interfering with the return of the Jews, and cleansing of the true tabernacle. The Romans first took the city and trampled it under foot. The Mohammedans afterwards took it, and further degraded it by locating their Mosque upon the very spot occupied by the temple of Solomon. Thus the two uniting in the humiliation; the one showing contempt by razing it to the ground, the other by the substitution of its iniquitous rites for its holy service; and not only united in the humiliation, but equally so in their opposition to the fulfillment of the prophecy concerning the final triumph of the gospel, the bringing in of the fullness of the Gentiles, and the return of the Jews, if not to their native land, at least their fealty to their rejected Messiah.
Behold then the picture! This double abomination, as well as double domination! (See frontispiece.) One from within and the other from without the temple of the living God. Both standing for centuries with their feet upon the neck of the Jewish and Gentile world! And the two, like Egypt and Babylon of old, though acting separately, yet conjointly to the same end; and, under the skilful management of the great adversary of souls, to prevent the spread and final triumph of the Redeemer’s kingdom. But, like all the other enemies of the gospel, these too must perish. Whoso arrays himself against the Lord Jesus Christ may expect, sooner or later, to be overwhelmed, and to be brought to the dust. The confession of the apostate Julian will yet be extorted from the lips of every vaunting foe, “Thou hast conquered, O Galilean.” Jesus is yet to reign over all the earth. Every knee is to bow, every lip to confess. The little stone cut out of the mountain without hands is now smiting, and will continue to smite, the image in his feet till the whole is destroyed. The time of their triumph is given as 1,260 years to the former, and 1,290 to the latter; or, if both of these refer to the same event, the latter number will be the required time for the complete finishing of the work of destruction, and 1,335 years for the recognition, if not full establishment, of the kingdom.
BEGINNING OF THESE PROPHETIC PERIODS.
If the true and real abomination was not set up at the destruction of Jerusalem, but in after years, we are at once relieved of all the difficulties which have beset interpreters in their vain attempts to harmonize the prophetic periods with that event. We have only to inquire when this man of sin within, and this king of fierce countenance without, one in the east and the other in the west, were set up. Their continuance was to be 1,260 and 1,290 years. To know their beginning is to know their ending. As they rose about the same time, they will doubtless also go out about the same time.
There are three different dates given by different interpreters for the rise of the beast, the setting up of the abomination, and therefore the beginning of the 1,260 years. Some fix it as early as A.D. 553, when the emperor Justinian issued his edict recognizing John II as head of the church. Others fix the time in the year 606, when the Emperor Phocas proclaimed Boniface III universal bishop. And others again, as late as 752, when Pepin of France conferred on Pope Stephen the exarchate of Ravenna in return for his confirming act in settling upon him the crown of France. The year usually adopted by a majority of interpreters is the middle one, viz., 606. By adding 1,260 the life of the beast, we have the year 1866 as about the time for the termination of the prophetic period. And it is a most remarkable fact that the revolution in Italy under Victor Emanuel, beginning about that time, resulted in 1868 in the unification of Italy, the forever taking away from the Pope his temporal power, and throwing open the gates of Rome to the world, and thus bringing about the destruction of the political power, or death of the first beast, and clearly establishing the correctness of the day year principle of interpretation.
But Daniel gives another important date, viz., 1290, when another disaster might be expected to befall the kingdom of the beast, and also pointing forward to a happy period a little further on, adding, “Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and thirty-five.” Add to these years 606, and we have as the important years 1896 and 1941. The year 1898 witnessed the further outpouring of the fifth vial, this time upon Spain, another seat of the beast and supporter of Papal supremacy. What the year 1941 will bring forth remains to be seen. By that time we confidently expect a wonderful change and development in the progress of events, if not another complete upheaval.
It may not be possible, nor is it necessary, for us to know the exact date for the fulfillment of these impending prophecies; it is enough to be assured of their nearness. The mariner may not be able to see the land, yet his log book and sounding line tell him that he is nearing the shore. The driftwood told Columbus of his nearness to land. We may not know of the day or hour, nor even the year, of the fulfillment of these prophecies, and yet know that they are near at hand, even in sight. As no interpreter has placed the time for the rise of the beast earlier than 533, and none later than 753, we feel warranted in saying that the 1260 years began somewhere between these extremes, and therefore must expire somewhere in the present century. As the rise of the Papacy was gradual, so also will be its decline. Like the rest of the beasts of which Daniel speaks, though their dominion would be taken away, their “lives would be prolonged for a season.” (Chapter vii. 12.) As in the old Babylonish captivity, intended as the type, there were several removals and returns, so doubtless it will be here. Neither Popery nor Mohammedanism is to be destroyed in a moment, but, like all other false religions, to be consumed gradually. That their destruction has already commenced none can doubt. One of the horns, the political, was broken off when he ceased to be a temporal ruler. The other, the religious, will gradually fall away, and years may be required for its complete eradication. The signs and indications all point to the rapid fulfillment of the remaining vials. And we see no reason why we may not expect to see, with the beginning of the next century, which is to introduce the seventh or sabbatic thousand of the world, the overthrow of the beast-the complete drying up of the Euphrates,—the destruction of all the open enemies of the church, and the last great upheaval which is to usher in the Millennial reign!
I have endeavored in the preceding pages to give, in brief outline, the meaning of these prophecies, as they appear to me, and according to the scheme as usually held by leading interpreters, and also ventured to give some dates as to the time of their fulfillment. In doing this I have adhered to the purpose of leaving out all minor details, and only sought to give the general outline, that they might be the more easily comprehended. How far I have succeeded in giving a clue to the general meaning I must leave the reader to judge. To my own mind the interpretations and explanations given have generally been not only satisfactory, but in many instances overwhelmingly convincing. While there is a great deal that is obscure, as in everything else around us, a great deal also appears very plain. As to the correctness of the dates given, the future alone will determine. I may here add, that nothing has more confirmed me in the truth of Revelation than the study of this book. It bears upon every page the impress of a divine hand. It could never have been written by an uninspired pen. The general correspondence between the symbols employed and the leading facts of history is so obvious that one must be blind not to be able to see the agreement. The one fits the other as the shoe the foot. The very fact, too, that the correspondence has been running for eighteen centuries establishes the identity with all the certainty of a demonstration; the recorded facts being but the unmistakable adumbration of the prophetic utterances, as a man’s shadow is but the easily recognized outline of himself.
There are several practical lessons to be drawn from the study of these prophecies.
1, There is much to be learned in the department of Christian Apologetics, not only in the accurate delineation of future events, but more especially in the adjustment of the hebdomadal feature with the facts of history. We meet with the number seven on every side. There are seven churches, seven seals, seven trumpets, seven vials, seven thunders, seven candlesticks, seven stars, seven angels, seven heads and so through the entire book. Now instead of the constant use of the number seven being evidence of a studied scheme, and thus casting suspicion upon the true predictive character of the book, as Professor Milligan intimates, in nothing do we more clearly see the divine hand than in this very correlation of the plan of creation and of the prophetic scheme. It is the same as the argument for the indestructibility of the Christian Sabbath drawn from the correlation of the seven days of the week with the seven periods of creation. None but an omniscient and omnipotent Creator could have so mutually arranged and adjusted beforehand the several periods of history to the hebdomadal periods of prophecy, or periods prophecy to those of history. The whole plan or scheme is too far removed from the sphere of human power and human knowledge to be attributed to an uninspired pen. Every one who neglects the study of this book has much to lose, not only in the quickening of his devotion, but also in the deepening of his convictions in the truths of revelation and the inspiration of the scriptures.
2, The second great lesson taught is the danger of uniting church and state, and it matters little which be made supreme. The whole history of civilization, as well as of the church, is but a standing protest against every such unhallowed alliance. When the state becomes the guardian and controller of the faith of God’s people and God’s cause, and Caesar undertakes to enforce the teachings and doctrines of the scriptures; or when the state tamely submits to the dictation of the church as its sovereign head, then the fagot, the prison, the inquisition, and the guillotine, will be the next things in order. When state authority and religious bigotry are vested in the same person, then the world may well tremble. No wonder we have presented to us in this prophecy this union as the last and the greatest of the threatened woes. It is high time the world was seeing the extreme peril of uniting church and state. God’s plan is unquestionably for his church to rule the world, but not in its organic capacity, but simply by the dissemination of its principles, and the instruction and preparation of her rulers for their high and responsible position.
3, The third lesson is the still greater peril flowing out of her affiliation with the world. Every such union means only degradation and loss of power. Israel entered into union with the Philistines, and the confusion of speech which followed attested the evil fruits of the alliance, the children speaking “half in the language of Ashdod and half in that of Israel.” Ahaziah joined his forces with those of wicked King Joram, and a mortal wound was the recompence of his folly. When in early times “the sons of God took to themselves wives of the daughters of men,” all flesh soon corrupted itself, and a disastrous flood became the sequel of the story. In every instance of worldly conformity in which human methods and schemes are adopted, the church is invariably the loser. Instead of lifting up the world, she misses her aim, and only drags herself down. This is one of the perils which confronts her to-day. The floating foam and rushes on the bosom of the sea no more clearly show the direction of the moving tide than modern innovations and changes the direction in which her bark is now drifting. Instead of occupying the high vantage ground assigned her by her Lord, that of entire separation form the world, she is seen in the vale below, “striving with the potsherds of the earth.” Instead of keeping her garments “unspotted and pure,” she is allowing them to become bespattered and begrimed with the filth and pollution of a corrupting world. Witness the introduction of politics and platform themes into her pulpits, and in some instances even the arts of the buffoon. Witness the profuse floral decorations, artistic music, operatic solos, stereopticon performances, fairs, suppers, entertainments, rummage sales, and the like, all connected with, and resulting in, the lowering of her standards, the abolition of discipline, the compromising of the truth, and the consequent weakening of her influence and power. See the different forms, too, of “will worship,” the numerous self-appointed sacrifices, the multiplication and substitution of “Societies,” “Leagues,” and “Associations” of every sort, springing up like worthless weeds on every side, and clamoring for a place, and demanding equal rights in the courts of the Lord’s house with the inspired appointments of his word. Instead of being simply “the Church of God,” standing alone her queenly simplicity and beauty, she is fast becoming an aggregation of human societies. Instead of being τη ἓχλεχτῃ the called out, of God, and that in every instance as the only motive for action, we are asked to recognize the necessity of the superadded imprint of human hands, in the form of an “Endeavor,” on the part of man; thus virtually charging the appointments of God with incompleteness and imperfection. Need we wonder at the withdrawal of the Spirit, the superficial character of conviction, and the numerous spurious conversions, which, instead of adding to her strength, only mar her beauty, misrepresent her life, and foster her pride in swelling the roll of her membership. The question asked by the Lord of his people of old may well be repeated here: “Who hath required this of your hand, to tread my courts?” (Isaiah i. 12.) We feel fully assured that nothing is gained by all this “daubing with untempered mortar.” The cause of God needs no such support from human hands any more than the uplifting and steadying of the overarching firmament. “To obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams.” (I Sam. xv. 22.) The fate of Uzzah should ever stand as a warning against all such familiar and unlawful handling of the ark of the Lord, as well as the threatened plagues pronounced upon all those who would “add to, or take from, the words of the prophecy of this book.” What the church needs is another cleansing by driving out “the sellers of doves and the money changers” which infest her courts. Let her do this, and bring in her tithes and offerings, as directed, and she will soon witness the opening of the heavens, and the outpouring of a blessing there will not be room enough to receive.
4, The fourth is a lesson of encouragement and hope to every Christian worker. Notwithstanding his people’s guilty toying and idle dalliance with the world, his word cannot fail. Prophecy still bespeaks the dawning of the morning and the early rising of the day-star. From the signs of the times, the day of the church’s victory and final deliverance is near at hand, even at our very doors. The truth is spreading, the Sun of righteousness is rising over all the earth with healing in his beams. Ethiopia is stretching out her hand to God, the isles of the ocean waiting for his law. The present great struggle in the far East, no matter what the result, will, like all others of similar character, only be for the furtherance of the gospel, and more rapid bringing in of the Millennial reign. The little stone cut out of the mountain without hands is rapidly increasing, and will soon become the great mountain, and fill the whole earth.
FOUR GREAT EMPIRES.
IV. ROMAN.—(Diverse from all others).
KINGDOM OF CHRIST.—Little stone to fill the whole earth.
Fulfilled at the Millennium.
WOMAN IN THE WILDERNESS.—The True Church.
Seals.—The church under Pagan rule.
1. White Horse—Conquest and prosperity.
2. Red Horse—Dissension and strife.
3. Black Horse—Trouble and distress.
4. Pale Horse—General dismay.
5. Souls of Martyrs—Persecution.
6. Earthquake—Revolution; first upheaval under Constantine. (Sealing of 144,000.)
7. Seventh seal, including the seven trumpets.
Trumpets.—The church under semi-Pagan rule.
1. Fire and hail—Alaric and Goths.
2. Burning mountain—Attila and Huns.
3. Falling star—Genseric and Vandals.
4. Smiting sun, moon and stars—Subversion of Western empire.
5. Locusts—Mohammedan conquests. (First Woe.)
6. Euphrates Horsemen—Turkish conquests. (Second Woe.) (Slaying of witnesses.) Second earthquake or upheaval under Luther.
7. Seventh Trumpet, including the seven vials. (Third Woe.)
Vials.—The church under Papal rule.
1. Upon the earth—Sore of infidelity.
2. Upon the sea—Reign of terror.
3. Upon the fountains—General bloodshed following.
4. Upon the sun—Military despotism.
5. Upon the seat of the beast—Rome and other supporters.
6. Upon the river Euphrates—Destruction of Turkish power. (Battle of Armageddon) Great struggle of principle.
7. Upon the air—Universal—third and last great earthquake or upheaval preparatory to the Millennium.
MILLENNIUM.-Emancipated church under Christian rule.
BATTLE OF GOG AND MAGOG.
RESURRECTION AND JUDGMENT.
Medopersian Ram______________________________B.C. 534
Commencement of 2,300 days___________________B.C. 434
Termination of 2,300 days _______________________A.D. 1866
Rise of Papacy ____________________________________606
Rise of Mohammedanism ____________________________606
First Seal—White Horse ________________________________96-180
Second Seal—Red Horse________________________________180-193
Third Seal—Black Horse_________________________________193-243
Fourth Seal—Pale Horse_________________________________243-248
Fifth Seal—Souls of martyrs______________________________284-304
First Trumpet—Alaric and Goths_________________________395-410
Second Trumpet—Attila and Huns________________________410-450
Third Trumpet—Genseric and Vandals ____________________450-453
Fourth Trumpet—Subversion of Western empire___________476-566
Fifth Trumpet—Saracenic conquests ____________________612-762
Sixth Trumpet—Turkish conquests _____________________1281-1672
Slaying of witnesses _______________________________1517
First Vial—Sore of infidelity __________________________1792
Second Vial—Reign of terror__________________________1793
Third Vial—Wars which followed_______________________1798
Fourth Vial—Imperial despotism_______________________1800
Fifth Vial—On seat of the beast________________________1798
Sixth Vial—Drying river Euphrates______________________1820
Seventh Vial—On the air-universal.__________________________
Three important dates are given by Daniel and John, viz., 1260, 1290, 1335. Interpreters generally agree that these periods start at the same time, but differ as to the time to begin the count. Some begin with the year 533, some with 606, and others again with 753. If we adopt the first, viz., 533, and add to this number the above mentioned figures, we will have, as the important years, 1793, 1823, 1868. If we adopt the last, viz., 753, we will have, as the important years, 2012, 2042, 2087. According to either interpretation the Millennium cannot be very far off.
As to the time for the resurrection and judgment, we absolutely know nothing, for nothing has been revealed. “But of that day and that hour knoweth no man-no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father.”
 For the reasons: (1), John, the last of the apostles; Domitian, the last of the Cæsars—suggestive contrast! (2). If standing in John’s day, and so soon to be destroyed, unaccountable that no mention is made of it in the Apocalypse he says, “For that was seen no very long time since, but almost in our day, toward the end of Domitian’s reign.” (Clark’s Pub., II., 138.) Eusebius quotes the same in his history, p. 102.
 This is the reason why the Papacy, rather than Mohammedanism, is emphasized as the antichrist, because within the pale of the church.
 This date long ago fixed by Faber, Newton, Scott, Gill and others.
 These things are done by individuals, and not by the church, we are told; then why the deceptive addendum. “For the benefit of the church?” If the Lord and his church be the beneficiaries, then of necessity they must be silent partners in every such transaction!